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Pages 1035

Genipin as An Emergent Tool in the Design of Biocatalysts: Mechanism of Reaction and Applications

Groups of research:Optimization of biocatalysts and bioprocesses
Veymar G. Tacias-Pascacio 1, Esmeralda García-Parra 1, Gilber Vela-Gutiérrez 1,  Jose J. Virgen-Ortiz 2, Ángel Berenguer-Murcia 3, Andrés R. Alcántara 4  and Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente 5,* 
1 Facultad de Ciencias de la Nutrición y Alimentos, Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas,  Chiapas 29050, Mexico; 
2 CONACYT—Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C. (CIAD)—CIDAM, Km. 8 Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro s/n, Morelia 58341, Mexico; 
3 Departamento de Química Inorgánica e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain; 
 4 Departamento de Química en Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain; 
5 Departamento de Biocatálisis, ICP-CSIC, Campus UAM-CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain * 
Abstract: Genipin is a reagent isolated from the Gardenia jasminoides fruit extract, and whose low toxicity and good crosslinking properties have converted it into a reactive whose popularity is increasing by the day. These properties have made it widely used in many medical applications, mainly in the production of chitosan materials (crosslinked by this reactive), biological scaffolds for tissue engineering, and nanoparticles of chitosan and nanogels of proteins for controlled drug delivery, the genipin crosslinking being a key point to strengthen the stability of these materials. This review is focused on the mechanism of reaction of this reagent and its use in the design of biocatalysts, where genipin plays a double role, as a support activating agent and as inter- or intramolecular crosslinker. Its low toxicity makes this compound an ideal alterative to glutaraldehyde in these processes. Moreover, in some cases the features of the biocatalysts prepared using genipin surpassed those of the biocatalysts prepared using other standard crosslinkers, even disregarding toxicity. In this way, genipin is a very promising reagent in the design of biocatalysts. 
Keywords:genipin; biocatalyst; inter and intramolecular crosslinking; support activation; enzyme immobilization
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