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PublicationFuel
Year2017
Volume202
Pages196-205
International

TWO-STEP ENZYMATIC PRODUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY BIOLUBRICANTS USING CASTOR OIL: ENZYME SELECTION AND PRODUCT CHARACTERIZATION

Authors:Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente
Groups of research:Optimización de biocatalizadores y bioprocesos enzimáticos
Greco-Duarte, J. a, Cavalcanti-Oliveira, E.D. a, Da Silva, J.A.C. b, Fernandez-Lafuente, R.*,c, Freire, D.M.G. *,a
 
a Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Centro de Tecnologia, Bl. A, Sl. 549, Ilha do Fundão, 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
b Cenpes, Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Américo Miguez de Mello, Petrobras, 21941-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
c Departamento de Biocatalisis, ICP-CSIC, C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus UAM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

We performed two-step enzymatic biolubricant production: castor oil hydrolysis and esterification of castor oil free fatty
acids (COFFA) rich in ricinoleic acid. The hydrolysis step utilized castor seeds as catalyst yielding 93.13 ± 5.9% COFFA
in only 1 h. In the esterification step, C. rugosa lipase (CRL) decreased the acidity by over 80% after 96 h, utilizing as
polyols neopenthylglicol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerytritol (PE) and showed about 70% acidity decrease
without polyols, indicating the production of COFFA polymers (estolides). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
confirmed estolides as the main product, reaching a polymerization degree of 6/7 without polyols, 4 in the presence of
PE and ricinoleic acid dimers in the presence of NPG and TMP. Analyses of biolubricant properties showed that the best
product was the estolide with a polymerization degree of 6/7: viscosity index of 162, oxidation stability of 51 min and
pour point of −42 °C.




Keywords:Biolubricant, estolide, castor oil, ricinoleic acid, Candida rugosa lipase
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