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RevistaTHE CHEMICAL RECORD
Año2016
Volumen16
Páginas1436–1455
Internacional

CHEMICAL MODIFICATION IN THE DESIGN OF IMMOBILIZED ENZYME BIOCATALYST: DRAWBACKS AND OPPORTUNITIES

Autores:Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente
Grupos de investigación:Optimización de biocatalizadores y bioprocesos enzimáticos
Nazzoly Rueda1,2,  Jose C. S. dos Santos1,3, Claudia Ortiz4, Rodrigo Torres2,5, Oveimar Barbosa6, Rafael C. Rodrigues7, Ángel Berenguer-Murcia8 and Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente1
1 ICP-CSIC. Campus UAM-CSIC. Cantoblanco. 28049 Madrid. Spain.
2Escuela de Química, Grupo de investigación en Bioquímica y Microbiología (GIBIM), Edificio Camilo Torres 210, Universidad Industrial de Santander, CEP 680001, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
3Instituto de Engenharias e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, CEP 62785-000, Acarape, CE, Brazil.
4Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia
5Current address: Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo-Ecopetrol, Piedecuesta, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
6Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué, Colombia
7Biocatalysis and Enzyme Technology Lab, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, P.O. Box 15090, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
8Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99 - 03080 Alicante, Spain


Abstract
            Chemical modification of enzymes and immobilization use to be considered secluded ways to improve enzyme properties. This review shows how the coupled use of both tools may greatly improve the final biocatalyst performance. Chemical modification of a previously immobilized enzyme is far simpler and easier to control than the modification of the free enzyme. Moreover, if protein modification is performed to improve its immobilization (enriching the enzyme in reactive groups), the final features of the immobilized enzyme may be greatly improved. Chemical modification may be directed to improve enzyme stability, but also to improve selectivity, specificity, activity and even cell penetrability. Coupling of immobilization and chemical modification to site directed mutagenesis has revealed to be a powerful instrument to get a fully controlled modification. Some new ideas, like photo-receptive enzyme modifiers that change their physical properties under UV exposition are discussed
Palabras clave:enzymes, polymers, photochemistry, structure–activity relationships, supported catalysts
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